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Since its creation in 1977, MSLF has been one of the Nation's leading legal centers fighting to preserve one of the reasons for America's great strength and remarkable success: the free enterprise system. American citizens have created the most prosperous country in the world because they have the unparalleled freedom and opportunity to do so. MSLF is committed to ensuring that they continue to have that freedom and opportunity.

American Exploration & Mining Association v. EPA - District Court

Why We Fight:

One protection afforded small businesses from overly burdensome federal regulations is the requirement that agencies consider the economic impact of regulations on small businesses; however, no such analysis was done regarding the “waters of the United States” rules issued by the Obama administration. 


When the Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers adopted a new, overly expansive definition of the Clean Water Act term “waters of the United States,” they ignored the immense costs the regulation placed on small businesses.

Legal Question:

Whether an agency may ignore substantial costs on small businesses by positing that the regulation or costs on these small businesses are indirect?


American Exploration & Mining Association


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Gina McCarthy, Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Dept. of Defense; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Jo Ellen Darcy, Assistant Secretary of the Army for Civil Works, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


United States District Court of the District of Columbia

MSLF must file a joint status report on September 25, 2017

Over the years, landowners challenging federal wetland determinations reached the Supreme Court of the United States.  In 1985, deciding at which point “water ends and land begins,” the Supreme Court upheld a definition that included wetlands that “actually abut[] on” traditional navigable waters.  In 2001, the Court held that “non-navigable, isolated, intrastate waters,” even those used by migratory birds, were not within the CWA.  In 2006, ruling on whether the CWA included intrastate wetlands adjacent to non-navigable tributaries of navigable waters, the Court vacated the Corps’ rules.  On behalf of a four judge plurality, Justice Scalia required a “continuous surface connection to bodies that are ‘waters of the United States’ in their own right,” but Justice Kennedy, while concurring in striking down the rules, demanded “a ‘significant nexus’ to waters that are or were navigable in fact or that could reasonably be so made.”  

In 2007, the EPA and the Corps responded to the Court’s rulings and in late 2008, after the receipt of 66,000 comments, issued new guidance on identifying “waters of the United States.”  Then, in 2011, the two agencies proposed new guidance that expanded significantly the reach of the CWA, including over vernal pools, prairie potholes, natural ponds, and playa lakes.  In response to 230,000 comments, many of which demanded a formal rule-making, the agencies issued that proposal in April of 2014.

On June 23, 2016, MSLF filed a complaint on behalf of AEMA asserting that the rule published on June 29, 2015, violates both the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) and the Administrative Procedure Act (APA).  The rules violate the APA because they illegally:  extend to all waters (not just wetlands) and all waters adjacent to non-navigable interstate waters; create a new jurisdictional concept “similarly situated waters” by misquoting the Supreme Court; and ignore the Court’s demand regarding alleged wetlands adjacent to non-navigable tributaries.

Although AEMA currently has a petition for review, consolidated with 21 other petitions for review, before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, there is uncertainty over whether the Sixth Circuit has original and exclusive jurisdiction over challenges to the final rule.  Compare In re: U.S. Dep’t of Def. & EPA Final Rule: Clean Water Rule: Definition of “Waters of the U.S.,” 817 F.3d 261 (6th Cir. 2016) (concluding jurisdiction over the petitions for review challenging the final rule is proper in the U.S. Court of Appeals) with North Dakota v. EPA, 127 F. Supp. 3d 1047 (D.N.D. 2015) (concluding that jurisdiction is proper in the U.S. District Courts). There is also a petition for certiorari before the Supreme Court.

This uncertainty coupled with the one-year statute of limitations under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (“RFA”), compelled MSLF to file this district court complaint as a protective measure to ensure that the statute of limitations would not run on AEMA’s RFA claim.

In light of the pending petitions for review before the Sixth Circuit and the pending petition for writ of certiorari before the Supreme Court of the United States, MSLF filed an unopposed motion to stay the proceedings on September 30, 2016.  That same day, the federal district court entered a minute order granting the motion to stay and further ordered the parties to file a joint status report every 120 days.  Additionally, the parties must notify the district court, within 14 days, of any definitive action taken by the Sixth Circuit or the Supreme Court.  Meanwhile, on January 13, 2017, the Supreme Court granted the petition.  On January 26, 2017, MSLF filed the first joint status report.


No Status Updates
  • Supreme Court: “Waters of the United States” Challenges Belong in Trial Courts

    Jan 22, 2018
    A 122-year-old nonprofit, non-partisan mining trade association with thousands of members welcomed today’s ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States that challenges to “wetland” determinations by federal agencies must be heard in first in federal trial courts.
  • Small Miners Group and Legal Foundation File “Waters of the United States” Comments

    Sep 26, 2017
    A 122-year-old nonprofit, non-partisan mining trade association with thousands of members and a western nonprofit, public-interest legal foundation today filed comments on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ proposed rule to rescind the existing definition of “waters of the United States,” as promulgated in 2015, and recodify the pre-2015 definition as the first step in a two-step process to review and revise the definition of “waters of the United States” in the Clean Water Act (CWA).
  • Miners Challenge EPA’s “Waters of the United States” Rules

    Jun 23, 2016
    A 120-year-old nonprofit, non-partisan mining trade association with thousands of members today filed a lawsuit in federal district court for the District of Columbia against the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and their top officials over newly released final rules that purport to define “waters of the United States” as set forth in the Clean Water Act (CWA).

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